Tag Archives: translations

Audio Recording

According to Article 259 of the Professional Procedure Code, in the course of the hearing minutes are kept. The protocol can be written by hand or typed, or manufactured using a computer. To ensure completeness of the protocol when it is administered may be used short-hand, as well as technical means. Almost similar to the content of articles (229, 230) contains the Civil Procedure Code. Craig Menear helps readers to explore varied viewpoints. However, the protocol is not is exhaustive and complete transcript of the hearing. As practice shows, it is not recorded all the questions and answers of persons involved in the case, often what happens in the courtroom, described in the protocol with distortions. Therefore, the procedural law provides for the right to make a record of the hearing comments.

In order to know exactly what comments to make, participate in person may record happening in any manner not prohibited by law (paragraph 5 of Article 241 of the Professional Procedure Code, paragraph 7 of Article 10 CPC). The most preferred method of fixation is a sound recording. Modern technology (Digital Recorders) can get up to several hours of high quality recordings without recharging the battery and change the mass storage device. The recording can be carried out and the built-in voice recorder mobile phone or on the analog tape recorder, but its quality is likely to be poor. Later received audio to be decoded. Transcription (transcript) – is quite complicated and laborious process, which are best left to professionals. Currently, there are a significant number of companies offering similar services, the workers are competent and properly "translate" the audio file to text, as a rule, even If for any reason, turned out a record is not very high quality, or if participating in the meeting, the person interrupting each other, because they are difficult to understand what they say. In preparing the transcript professionals uses special software that allows you to squeeze out any record of everything you can.

Transcript can be used, of course, not only to comment on the hearing record. When preparation for the next meeting is very useful in a relaxed atmosphere to view and remember what happened at the previous meeting, to analyze the behavior of the procedure opponents and other participants in the process. It has long been known that 90% of the information a person perceives through the organs of vision. Listening to audio, you might miss or not understand something that is almost impossible unless you have before your eyes, well-prepared transcript. And further, having it on hand, you can during the trial cited the above actors, to compare the evidence and witnesses, and so on.

Translation Process

One of the main requirements for transfer are its equivalence, accuracy and closeness to the original. Interpreters are constantly trying to make a match of two papers maximum. At the same time are not equivalent only the texts themselves, and even their constituent parts: the utterance, and even individual words, ie the smallest unit of text. When using equivalent units (where one of the original text can always replace a unit in the text transfer) creates sustainable equivalence relation. This unit is regularly used gradually forms a translation line. German translation of the Russian language has its own set of matches. Likewise, each pair of languages is characterized by its complex meets linguistic units. When the transfer is carried out in the opposite direction, not always a correspondence between words, expressions, will be preserved.

Attention should be attention to the very significant correction. Correspondence between the linguistic units do not exist by themselves, but in the context of the text. This result comes from the equality of communicative text units. Naturally, translation compliance can not be established between two specific isolated units, which pulled out from the text. Every language is characterized by more or less considered the category of correspondences. Translation from English to not exception.

It is different for detailed examination correspondence of verbal phrases. But the transfer of adjectives or numerals from English into Russian is often considered insufficient detail because of their parallelism. For identifying translation correspondences are analyzing the text. Sought compliance with foreign entities that may be at the level of morphemes, phonemes or words. Then find out the whole match offers. Naturally, the greatest attention is paid to units that are more common in the text. Compliance is always considered at the same level. There are several types of translation correspondences. With respect to unity translated text of conformity are single and multiple sites. Unit are a stable equivalent, which is used in most cases, the appearance of a linguistic unit in the document. These include, For example, names, terms, names. Multiple same correspondence includes several translations of one unit. If we consider the identification of translation correspondences at different levels, there is a division of matching on the lexical, grammatical, phraseological. Wrong to suggest that it is sufficient to replace the text of the original unit of a unit in a transfer if there is a correspondence between them. Always keep in mind linguistic context in which the word is used. And besides you need to pay attention to the syntax inside which employs a unit. You should also note which of the values used linguistic units. After all, the same word can have different meanings. So translated from German must always take into account the context. Exactly as translations from other languages. To do this, the translators first acquainted with the text entirely. A then directly transferring the information into another language, do not work with specific words and their sequences, and with parts of the text. Search correspondences and their use of a high level of complexity. It is not enough simply to identify an equivalent word. Even already established correspondence can sometimes be inapplicable. But thanks to this approach, successfully achieved a high level of accuracy, the equivalence of two texts – original and translation. Which is one of the main tasks of the translation process.