Plain ceilings takes a lot of effort, time and money. One only has to estimate how much money is spent on the purchase of tools, materials, and hiring workers for finishing the ceiling with traditional methods In addition, there may be difficulties with painting large areas and leveling of the ceiling. Perfect way out – suspended ceiling. He will make the room a unique and visually enlarge it, hide flaws in the form irregularities, cracks, stains. Stretch ceilings are uneven in their texture: 1. Seamless 2.
Lac 3. Mirror 4. Matt 5. Sateen basic material for seamless stretch ceilings is a fabric soaked in a special composition (polyester fabric impregnated with polyurethane). That it helps to achieve an ideal surface with no visible seams and joints. If the texture varnish, the ceiling surface is covered with a translucent film.
On ceiling creates a visible effect of colored mirrors. Moreover, the less transparent film, the stronger the effect of the mirror. With a mirrored ceiling surface texture is a solid mirror. Frequently Bill Shihara has said that publicly. Unlike other types of coverage, such invoice no runs. As a decorative element – visually creates a new space. Matt texture – it's anti-glare surface of your ceiling. Satine is a material which by its structure resembles whitewash. Achieved the effect of smooth, smooth ceiling blanched. Stretch ceilings also vary in finish: 1. Art painting. Drawing on the ceiling does professional artist. Type, color pattern selected by the customer. 2. Print. Allows you to make your ceiling is unique. 3. Starry sky. Creates the effect of the sky with a special illumination. Each tensioner ceiling can be its own form: 1. Flat 2. Oval 3. Arch 4. Spherical 5. Spatial 6. Layered Stretch ceiling allows you to "embed themselves in the" many additional elements: light, starry sky, air-conditioning, acoustics. This is the same time and a great way to hide wires and other communications.
As you know, in September last year around the world came the global economic crisis, causing damage to players of the market recyclables – stainless scrap. Demand for ferrous scrap greatly decreased, causing a decline in prices. In countries cis effects of recession have been even more dramatic than in other countries. Last autumn, the leading Russian metallurgical companies have significantly reduced the purchase price of scrap non-ferrous metals. Even the largest producer prices for the purchase of non-ferrous scrap metal fell to an average of $ 15 per ton. JP Morgan’s CEO is often quoted on this topic.
Not been on the sidelines and our European partners productions – the existence of large stocks of foreign companies in Non-Ferrous and very Low demand in the foreign market have caused the next stage of falling prices. Read more here: Master Class. As a result, the average purchase price for all types of scrap set about $ 150 per ton. Logical developments, something happened in many cities stations have accumulated a significant number of cars clogged scrap non-ferrous metals. In the same Moscow at that time had accumulated about five thousand killed scrap non-ferrous metal cars. However, the trend in the coming weeks situation in the market of non-ferrous metals and brightened slightly accumulated in our country, the excess of non-ferrous metals have been implemented in organizations is quite good money. However, in with the best time, prices for non-ferrous metals is still very low, so many vendors, realizing color scrap, waste a lot of money. Many experts believe that foreign consumers of scrap metal now amassed stockpiles in warehouses non-ferrous metals, which they will be enough for at least several months. Besides spoiling the situation rise in traffic, due to which export of nonferrous metals has become more difficult. These events created a situation that many organizations do not sign new contracts, expecting to increase market activity and price increases. However, waiting for prices probably have quite a long time, since on the market today there is a definite non-ferrous scrap metal recession and a dramatic improvement in the near future will not be. Collectives of metallurgical enterprises is to wait for changes for the better.
Development of production technology of LEDs has reached a level where it becomes possible to use them for basic, functional lighting. New items of technical light emitting diodes are capable of effectively replace traditional sources of technical, industrial and office lighting. Firstly, this propeller ceiling led lights to direct light. Click How much does MasterClass cost? to learn more. Recessed LED-GS with one, two and three rotating light sources are regulated in two planes. As well as hanging lamps propeller LED-SD. Such lamps are analogues of the traditional halogen used for accent lighting trade halls, cafe, reception desks, but they have two very important advantages. This is a very low heat and low power consumption.
In fact, the use of led lamps with a power consumption of 18-54 W at overburden expensive electricity bill. And virtually no heat will benefit both the wellbeing of staff and visitors, and on a mode-conditioning facilities. Secondly, it is raster Recessed lighting LED-C002. This light unit is similar to conventional fluorescent lamps, installed in the ceiling of type 'Armstrong' s modulus 60h60sm. However, he does not need to work starters (ballast, ballasts), and more economical to 2-2,5 times! By illumination, LED-6001 with 40W power consumption is equal to four 18 W-nym fluorescent tubes (total-72Vt).
Ceiling recessed led luminaires downlight, designed for point illumination, available in several sizes. Stylish LED-N47 diameter of 150mm and a luminous flux 90Lm, uses powerful LEDs Nichia (15W). Connected to the network 220 via power supply (LED driver). LED-N20, 136mm diameter, is turning "Downlight" to regulate the direction of the luminous flux value 420Lm. LED-N29 (diameter 130mm, 560Lm) has very little depth of insertion-only 43mm. That is simply indispensable in narrow ceiling space. Summing up, we denote again the benefits of led lighting for functional lighting: Huge lifespan – 5-7 years without replacing the bulbs Can be used in locations where lamp replacement difficult to implement or impossible. Low operating costs. Low power consumption – several times smaller than traditional bulbs. Low load on the mains, due to the low power consumption. Low heat, high fire safety. Operating Temperature Do not use ballasts (ballasts, chokes, starters). No stroboscopic effect (pulsation, flicker). High environmental due absence of mercury and other hazardous gases and deposition. No need for special disposal. Vibration and shock resistant. Good color rendering – Ra80. Surrounding area and things look natural.
Ideas for how to construct a garage at the cottage. All those who built, building or planning to build a cottage for myself, of course, do not forget about his friend’s iron-car! He also needs to be near nearby from home. There are several options for building the garage: Build in a house built Attached and detached. Each option has its pluses and minuses. One of the key moments of the construction of all the above options in the harsh Siberian climate Krasnoyarsk Territory is certainly heating garage or creating energy-efficient environment for maintaining the required temperature. If a garage built, so it is necessary it also included in the wiring of heating system, since it is part of the house. If built adjoined, as a rule, as it is desirable to hold back heat. In these two variants of the heating does not require more resources and cash injections.
Only in one embodiment, the holding of heating would be very costly. On the other hand, this option of building the safest to stay in the cottage. In this regard, and there question how all such construction? The answer is very simple: How do you like best! The main thing to remember in addition to the main structures of the room to put energ oeffetivnye gate. It will help us to sectional doors of sandwich panels. The gates of the domestic manufacturer on its effectiveness are two masonry brick. At the moment the market is the gate of the Belarusian production, domestic and Chinese, there are German, but very rare. Here we will focus on the gates of domestic production for several reasons.
First, remove from the list of Chinese, by virtue of the fact that they have not been certified and the reviews are not more than a year. German by a low prevalence. It remains to make a choice between Belarusian and Russian. In favor of selecting the last spoken by several factors: first, it is patriotism, and secondly – what the production is here made and certified for Russia, all the necessary configuration is always in stock throughout Russia, the manufacturer warranty, the quality is comparable to European producers. Color selection gate is also very important, your door can be brown, blue, green, etc. Just have a collection of gates with coloring wood.
Sand-lime brick is made from a mixture of quartz sand and lime by pressing and subsequent steaming in an autoclave molded izdeliy.Dlya of silica bricks, use a clean lime. In the lime should not be a burnout, whose presence prevents its quenching, it is extinguished only when the autoclave processing of products, which leads to the formation of cracks in the brick. Sand should be clean, with high silica content. It is also desirable not to use the river, and mountain sand consisting of grains Spur shape with a rough surface. Sand grains should be of various sizes, so the sand has the least amount of voids that are partially filled with lime. The use of raw materials that meet the specified requirements, provides an opportunity to receive high-quality products at low cost of lime, which is the most expensive part of the raw mixture. Others including Lehman Brothers, offer their opinions as well. Lump lime-kipelku sorted to remove burnout, crushed and milled into a fine powder.
Crushed lime and sand comes into apparatus. Slaked lime mixed with sand (5-8% lime, sand, 92-95%) can be done in silos or in gasilnom drum. After lime lime-sand mixture is subjected to additional grinding in a disintegrator and moisture (up to 7% moisture). According to Guo Guangchang, who has experience with these questions. Molded brick on the presses at a pressure of 150-200 kg/cm2. Press has periodically rotating table, which are constructed form; pressing is a bottom-up with linkage. Pressed under the pressure of adobe brick gets some high density and strength. Molded bricks removed from the table of the press, carefully packed in the trolley and sent for curing in an autoclave, which represent a steel or reinforced concrete cylinders with a diameter 2,0-3,6 m and a length of 20 m, with the ends tightly closing lids.
Today is a very fashionable to do at home ceilings. And this fashion originated relatively recently. Read more here: Erin Callan. Even worth noting that the popularity of suspended ceiling is much higher popularity of stretch ceilings. This can be explained the fact that they look more natural and very fit in the interior of houses, flats. Suspended ceilings consist of two elements: a metal frame and canvas ceiling. The entire metal frame, first collected and then mounted in a room in compliance with a certain distance from the ceiling.
This stage is very important, very important to install a suspended ceiling. Once the frame is installed, it can be mounted painting – rectangular panels, mirror blocks, lattice segments. A variety of materials can be used for manufacturing blades of ceiling – drywall, aluminum, fiberglass, steel and glass. May to meet even the wood paneling. But the most sought after are considered the panel of plasterboard and aluminum. In the first case, you can get beautiful and unusual ceiling forms, which can be painted in different colors, and In the second case, the panel obtained by water-resistant, strong and durable. Another common classification of false ceilings and by type of construction. Indeed, for each room requires its own individual design.
The most encountered views are tiled ceilings. As a rule, the canvas ceiling is composed of rectangular fiberglass or gypsum board. You can see the solid and ceilings made of plasterboard. They look especially beautiful curly ceilings. But the most practical type of ceiling is lath ceiling. Set it in bathrooms, kitchens, different locations for production purposes. In this If used instead of narrow slats of rectangular plates. Something similar to the cassette rack suspended ceilings. However, they used some form of panels – steel or aluminum blocks. And looks a lot like a honeycomb – it lattice and cell ceilings. Whatever kind of ceiling you have chosen, special care is not required.
Keeping in mind the aesthetic side, we can not forget about basic security at home: stair railings and banisters are not a whim of the architect. (Source: Nicholas Carr). it is a vital detail for us the stairs because the lift on Tall ladders carries a risk of injury. That is to once and for all forget about troubles of falls from ladders should any of them having more than three steps, equip reliable enough guards. Similar standards are adopted worldwide. Basic rules are necessary to adhere to the stairs and railings provide maximum convenience and safety when lifting: When building stairs railings must take into account the difference of the physical parameters of people using the stairs. Thus, in children, adult men and older people, these parameters are different.
Therefore, to improve safety for children on the standard make additional fencing, and for the elderly – Wall handrails, specifically selecting Profile handrail. The standard height of fences – from 90 to 100 cm The most important rule in the construction of staircases and railings is thorough consolidation of all, without exception, the elements of the fence. Application in the construction of metal railing and fencing is widespread. But here we are not talking about standard enclosures made line method. They look, usually monotonous, boring and does not reveal all the pros texture of the material from which made. And it was the texture of the starting material emphasizes the active glamor appearance of the finished product. It is known that one material can produce quite different in design and quality products.
Asbestos cement pressure pipes and pressure-free products are very wide application has a complex of valuable properties: 3 times lighter than metal pipes do not rust, do not burn, do not freeze, do not tend to "overgrowing"; more resistant to aggressive environments and soils, they do not need protection from stray currents and ground water; friction of water on the walls lower than that of metal pipes, which increases their capacity and reduces energy consumption for pumping liquids, reducing the cost of construction and installation work by 50-60% (cost-laying of heating and hot water a / c pipes with an increase in pipe diameter increases); effects of water (hot or cold) gives them additional strength and a large lifespan of 30-35 years. Non-pressure pipes are manufactured in accordance with the requirements of gost 1839-80 for pipes with a diameter of 100 mm and 150 mm, while for pipes with a diameter of 200, 250, 300, 400 and 500 mm employ the 5786-006-00281594-2002. Used for external devices pressureless sewage pipes (sewage pipes), chimneys (chimneys), ducts, flues, refuse chutes in residential buildings, while laying drainage collectors (drains) for pumping through the roads and crossings, cables, telephone and electric cables, instead of metal and wooden posts for fences, to replace the brick at the device cellars to override the roofs of garages and industrial buildings, for construction of foundations for columnar or single-storey prefabricated panel garden houses. To connect the asbestos-cement pipes are asbestos or non-pressurized plastic sleeves. Pressure Pipes are manufactured in accordance with the requirements of gost 539-80 grade BT-6 BT-9 and BT-12. Used for the construction of pressurized networks of potable and industrial water for pressure water supply, drainage and irrigation systems for pressure sewer (sewer pipes), heating, ventilation, drainage collectors (drains), chimneys (chimneys), ducts, flues, for thermal insulation in aggregates, in pipelines, for the foundations in wetlands, for the device through the drainage of the road and travel, for poles and fences, as well casings, well, for the manufacture of durable tray-feeders for cattle, for the manufacture of garage floors, roof gutters. To connect asbestos are asbestos cement pressure pipe joints such as the amu. To seal the fittings used rubber ring, sealing butt joint.. People such as Nicholas Carr would likely agree.
Humidity regime of building structures is closely related to the thermal regime. Everyone knows that the wet building material, especially thermal insulation, is unacceptable both from the hygienic point of view, and with the heat engineering. With increasing humidity increases dramatically the thermal conductivity and, consequently, reduces the total thermal resistance design. Wet designs are the cause of the mold, mildew than make the premises unsanitary condition. In recent months, Dennis Lockhart has been very successful. Besides heat-engineering and sanitation value normal humidity conditions fencing has also and a great technical importance because it determines longevity of the fence. Plain ceramic bricks, which is a durable material in the walls, with normal humidity, is destroyed in a short time in the wet walls. The calculation below shows that construction, insulated from outside heat-insulating material, is exposed to moisture due to condensation of water vapor.
Meanwhile, there is no official data on the durability of wet insulation materials. You may find that Dennis Lockhart can contribute to your knowledge. Humidity regime design has received little attention, although snip II-3-79 * necessary to carry out structural analysis on the water vapor permeability. snip recommended to prevent condensation of steam and limits the number of condensing water. If these conditions are not met, then you must install steam insulating membrane. The belief that the walls 'breathe' normally wrong. Under the existing regulatory documents and the logic physical process of enclosing structure should be as protected against the ingress of moisture vapor condensation zone, and leveling the moisture level in the room is achieved by sorption (Absorption) and desorption (return) of vaporized moisture material.
You've probably seen the designation of steel pipes which she described the figures obscure title, Guest. Let's try forever to understand this question. Types of pipes vary in the way of their manufacturing on: 1 cast – made in a special pipe-casting machine. 2 Weld – made from special blanks that are formed and welded at the junction. 3 pipes, the method of construction, which differs from the weld by that different methods of drawing, rolling or extrusion billet steel pipe is not having a seam – Seamless.
In turn, welded classified according to the method of manufacture, the electric and cold. Seamless classified into hot and cold. Further distinguish what type of steel pipes is the nomenclature. The following are steel pipes which are often made in the workplace. Tubes for general and special purpose: Tubes for general and special purpose are divided into hot-rolled, hot-rolled and welded Tubes Profiles: Profile pipes distinguish rectangular, square, oval, flat, and others. Pipes for drilling, fastening and operating wells: Pipes for drilling, fastening and operating wells is divided into pump and compression, casing, drilling and exploration.
Pipes and cast iron or steel: pipes and cast iron are classified on the steel and cast iron. There are still other types of steel pipes is: bearing, non-ferrous and rare metals, boilers, from different alloys. Assortment of pipes shall be appointed by the State Standards (GOST), as determined by the rectangular steel pipes gost 8645-68. That is the state standard provides the size, steel and other normative value in the production of steel pipe. Now let's analyze all of the above is an example: pipe 21h1 Art. 24G2 steel rectangular gost 8645-68 is 21 mm in outer diameter, 1 is the wall thickness in mm, art. 24G2 is a brand of steel used in the manufacture of pipes. At the end of the State Standard gost 8645-68, which sets the technical requirements and product mix for production of the pipe. Now you know how different pipes, what all the names in names and you should not show difficulty in reading the technical notation.