Marochnik Steels And Alloys

The Introduction handbook contains the following information: – the name of the steel grade (CIS) – a substitute – the form of delivery – the appointment, and technological properties – properties of the foundry (for cast steels) – analogues: information indicating membership in the steel to the country, one or another national standard (standard) or entity (for factory notation) – information about the chemical composition (percentage of components in steel) – additional information about steel, combined in the “Note”. Chemical composition of steels contains information about the percentage of the following elements: carbon (C), silicon (Si), manganese (Mn), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), vanadium (V), niobium (Nb), titanium (Ti), aluminum (A1), copper (Cu), nitrogen (N), tungsten (W), Lead (Pb), cobalt (Co), cerium (Ce), zirconium (Zr), arsenic (As), boron (B). In some countries in the chemical composition of steels are also given and carbon ratios of cm and ce. The manual introduced the concept of “material basis”. In the vast majority of steels such material is iron (Fe). For high-temperature alloys based on Ni and Co are also included in the handbook as a base material made of Ni or Co, respectively, and the chemical composition of the added information on the percentage of Fe. The contents of each chemical element occupy two fields: the specified minimum element content (in all tables is placed on top) and maximum (located visa). Very often, information about any element in the standards are written in the form C.