Iron

As a chemical element Iron Iron is very abundant, and not just on Earth but on other planets in the solar system it is usually not free but form oxides which are the raw material for steel industry, these oxides are known as hematite, magnetite, siderite, among others, and are reduced with the help of coal, and then refine them. The crystal structure is shown as follows: Alfa. Crystal system with a net body-centered cubic (bcc) to 911 C Gamma centered cubic faces .- to 1400 .- Delta C about the body centered cubic to 1500 C Epsilon .- At high temperatures and pressures, structure hexagonal close-packed. Iron industry and its derivatives have a wide use by humans, as it is very easily molded at high temperatures but at room temperature is extremely resistant to efforts, mechanical, chemical or vibrational, iron alloy is named when more than 2% carbon by weight and may identify two main types of Gray cast iron and white which is well recognized properties of resistance to abrasion and corrosion. Humans have been using Iron from about 6000 years by cultures like the Sumerian, Egyptian, or Chinese, but its use was purely ceremonial, only from the 17th century is interpreted as more technical uses in the manufacture of utensils, armor , tools and weapons, this time served as a preamble to the industrial revolution where the use of iron became especially intense demand for steel structures for bridges, buildings, ports, shipbuilding, etc., and for further railway use it should be noted that this improvement was achieved in kilns like Bessner achieves a very effective reduction of iron ore also increased in parallel with the use of coal in order to achieve the necessary reduction and heating, for this reason natural carbon migrated to the use of coke or anthracite. Today is a key element in the human development interpreted that 90% of this demand for metals, is given by the Iron, in which production as well as suffered a major renovation especially in productivity corresponds, so that ovens are known as blast furnaces, iron processing in combination with coal and lime for several consecutive years without going out ever in that period, with production no less than 20 000 tons of pig iron, which is nothing but an intermediate product iron which must be refined further purifying applications, usually taking iron and leads to reduction furnaces. Using methane and oxygen in which extracts the excess carbon, which can weaken the final Iron and lead to many structural deficiencies and reduce machining very desirable condition in the construction industry in addition to its weldability.